Definitions and pathophysiology

endometriosis general
Endometrium is the tissue lining the inside of the uterus.
Endometriosis is defined as endometrial stroma and glands outside the uterus, but this definition needs revision.
Adenomyosis is endometrial stroma and glands in the wall of the uterus

Endometriosis is initiated by genetic-epigenetic changes in the cells (see our recent publications , caused by oxidative stress and infection.

Observations on endometriosis

Pathophysiology of endometriosis: The genetic epigenetic theory

Growth of endometriosis lesions varies with the G-E changes and with the environment as immunology and peritoneal cavity

What is new with the genetic-epigenetic theory

  • We understand the problems during pregnancy
  • lesions are clonal and thus small benign tumors
  • similar looking lesions can be different e.g. progesterone resistance and thus react very differently to hormonal treatment
  • at the moment of diagnosis most lesions are no longer progressive
  • no recurrences after complete excision


Surgery: read more

advanced laparoscopic surgery

Only surgical excision can cure endometriosis, if the surgeon has the skills to recognize all endometriosis and the expertise to excise.

Better no surgery than incomplete, excessive or bad surgery. The first surgery should be the last

Video-registration is needed to judge quality of surgery

Medical treatment

read more
Medical treatment decreases pain but not in all women.

Side effects are weight gain by progestagens or osteoporosis secondary to GNRH.

Some lesions continue to grow during medical treatment (see heterogeneity of lesions)

Deep endometriosis can cause bowel occlusion or bowel or bladder perforation  during pregnancy

Symtoms and diagnosis

endometriosis check-list

endometriosis check-list




  1. Suspicion because of  symptoms, clinical exam or ultrasound:   50% of women with pain or infertility have endometriosis.
  2. The decision to perform a laparoscopy, is based on the suspicion and imaging and other exams.
  3. The Diagnostic Laparoscopy requires a surgeon who recognizes all forms of endometriosis. Surgery is performed if the surgeon has the skills, otherwise the patient is referred, as explained in the informed consent .
  4. Medical treatment can be useful following a laparoscopy and surgery as a prevention or recurrences.

Wrong concepts and Common mistakes

Wrong concepts because of the  Sampson implantation theory.

  • Endometriosis is not progressive or recurrent.
  • Lesions are heterogeneous and thus different from the endometrium.
  • Hysterectomy and ovariectomy without complete removal of the endometriosis is a mistake

Inadequate diagnosis or referral

  • Diagnosis of superficial endometriosis requires a laparoscopy
  • Medical treatment without a diagnosis is wrong
  • IVF without a laparoscopy
  • Surgery is avoided by those without the skills
  • resulting in a mean delay in diagnosis of 7-8 years

Why ?

  • Surgery with insufficient skills has more complications, incomplete surgery and a high recurrence rate
  • Less skilled surgeon fear the quality control  by video-registration  .
  • The low reimbursement of endometriosis surgery  favors bowel resections.
  • Infertility surgery by microsurgery was performed in specialized centers. Today fertility centers focus on IVF with less fertility surgery by laparoscopy
  • Medical therapy of endometriosis is a ‘billion dollar business’ .
  • The gynecologists-Pelvic Surgeons are a small group and they do not fit with the classic sub-specialties .
    • Too many bowel resections  since bowel resections can be done in every hospital by the bowel surgeon
    • The Infertility lobby. Good surgery is a prevention of IVF, which is expensive for society.
    • Oncologist do not like the concept of the pelvic surgeon for endometriosis who could do oncology.


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